Check yourself: What symptoms indicate a lack of vitamins


A person cannot do without vitamins from food, because the body does not synthesize all vitamins and not in sufficient quantities (with the exception of vitamin D, which, in the presence of sunlight, the human body is able to produce in abundance). The good thing is that they are in almost any food: from greens and fruits to meat, fish, and dairy products.

Officially, there are 13 vitamins. But there is a debate about giving the status of vitamin B4 to the substance choline as well. It is not easy to understand this topic on your own. From the novelty of the Book of the Zozhnik, we present a table created on the basis of the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The most important thing in it is the symptoms that indicate a lack of vitamins, and the listing of foods that contain these vitamins.

  • B1

It plays an important role in the process of muscle contraction, as it helps the passage of nerve signals.

Deficiency negatively affects the work of the cardiovascular, central, and peripheral nervous systems, and can also cause problems in the gastrointestinal tract.

Whole grain bread, cereals and pasta, sunflower seeds, nuts, and legumes.

  • B2

Takes part in metabolic processes, and also plays an important role in the production of red blood cells.

With a shortage: fatigue, malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, swelling of the throat, a feeling of tension in the eyes, ulcers, and cracks in the corners of the lips. Deficiency can also stun a person’s growth, and cause skin diseases and anemia.

Where is contained

Almonds, wild rice, mushrooms, milk, eggs, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, and nuts.

  • B3

Participates in the production of sex and stress hormones promotes normal blood circulation and helps to suppress inflammation.

With a deficiency: diarrhea, vomiting, inflammation of the skin, peeling of the skin. Also, a person’s psyche is disturbed, absent-mindedness, fatigue, symptoms of depression appear, and blood circulation worsens.

Where is contained



Dairy products, eggs, fish, lean meats, nuts, and legumes.

  • B5

Plays an important role in the formation of red blood cells, and is involved in the production of sex hormones and cholesterol; necessary for the normal functioning of the digestive system.

Deficiency is extremely rare and manifests itself in the form of burning and tingling in the legs.

Where is contained

Beef liver, sunflower seeds, trout, yogurt, avocado, milk, lean pork, chicken, eggs, feta cheese, and legumes.

  • B6

Participates in the production of serotonin (mood hormone), melatonin (regulation of the circadian rhythm), hemoglobin, supports the functioning of the nervous system, and blood sugar levels within normal limits.

Deficiency: muscle weakness, irritability, skin damage, mouth sores. B6 deficiency during pregnancy and breastfeeding can lead to mental retardation and blood disorders in newborns.

Where is contained

Salmon, avocado, turkey meat, chicken, spinach, bananas, prunes, sunflower seeds, shrimp, beef liver, and legumes.

Spinach is a storehouse of vitamins. Add it to salads. Source

  • AT 7

Necessary during pregnancy for the normal development of the child. Plays an important role in maintaining healthy hair and nails.

Deficiency is rare, causing hair loss, dry skin, swollen tongue, dry eyes, as well as loss of appetite, fatigue, insomnia, and depression.

Where is contained

Eggs, liver, pork, salmon, and avocado. Small amounts are found in whole grain bread, cauliflower, raspberries, and cheddar cheese.

  • AT 9

It is of great importance for the proper functioning of the brain and psycho-emotional health. It takes an active part in the production of DNA and RNA macromolecules – the genetic material of the body.

With a deficiency: growth slows down, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, diarrhea, inflammation of the tongue appears, irritability, forgetfulness, and lethargy are observed.

Where is contained

Spinach, asparagus, beets, Brussels sprouts, beef liver, legumes, salmon, avocado, milk, and orange juice.

  • AT 12

Needed by the body to produce red blood cells, synthesize DNA and RNA, and support neurological functions. Plays an important role in the functioning of the immune system.

Lack causes anemia and, as a result, fatigue, dizziness, lethargy, and irritability. There are also neurological problems – numbness and tingling in the limbs, and unsteady gait.

Where is contained

Shellfish, mussels, mackerel, beef, salmon, trout, haddock, milk.

  • AT 4

helps produce acetylcholine, a nerve signal transmitter (choline)* that keeps the brain working and helps muscles contract. In addition, choline supports the functioning of the liver and acts as a hepatoprotective.

With a deficiency: fatigue, insomnia, memory problems, and impaired liver function.

Where is contained

Beef liver, shrimp, eggs, beef, chicken, salmon, Brussels sprouts, peanuts, and milk.

  • With

The main function is the growth and restoration of tissues, the formation of skin, cartilage, ligaments, and blood vessels, and maintaining the health of teeth and bones. Antioxidant.

With a deficiency: lethargy, inflammation and bleeding of the gums, dry skin, hair, and eyes.

Where is contained

Orange, grapefruit, kiwi, strawberry, melon, mango, pineapple, bell pepper, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and spinach.

  • BUT

Responsible for maintaining good vision, and maintaining the normal functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Necessary for the normal functioning of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Helps maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes and plays an important role in bone formation and wound healing.

Deficiency: the sensation of dryness in the eyes, poor vision in the dark, skin problems, and diarrhea. Fat-soluble: in case of overdose, poisoning may occur.

Where is contained

Beef liver and cod liver, eggs, milk, melon, apricots, pink grapefruit, carrots, pumpkin, broccoli, and spinach.

  • D

Promotes the absorption of calcium, the amount of which depends on bone density. Also, this vitamin is important for the normal functioning of the nervous and immune systems of the body.

In children, vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets, bone deformities, and growth retardation. Its deficiency in adults leads to softening of the bones, spontaneous fractures, and caries.

The US Institute of Medicine does not recommend getting more than 100 micrograms of vitamin D per day. An excess of this substance causes an abnormal increase in calcium in the blood, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones, and damage to the heart, and blood vessels.

Where is contained

Fatty fish: salmon, herring, sardines, mackerel. Small amounts of the vitamin are found in beef liver, egg yolk, and vitamin D-fortified milk.

Get plenty of sun to help your body make vitamin D.

  • E

An antioxidant and an important element in the functioning of the immune system, it helps the body produce red blood cells and improves sexual function in men, and menopause in women.

Among the consequences of vitamin E deficiency are muscle weakness and atrophy, vision problems, and impaired balance and coordination of movements.

Fat-soluble: With regular overdose, weakness, lethargy, fatigue, blurred vision, convulsions, and muscle pain may occur.

Also read: Flu and pet vaccinations

Where is contained

Wheat germ, olive, sunflower, rapeseed oils, as well as almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, green leafy vegetables, seeds, soybeans, and eggs.

  • To

Helps blood clotting. Some scientists also believe that this vitamin helps maintain healthy bones in the elderly.

Deficiency: poor blood clotting, which can lead, for example, to bleeding gums.

Fat-soluble: with regular overdose, it causes symptoms of poisoning, for example, increased blood clots, and disruption of the gastrointestinal tract.

Where is contained

Broccoli, green leafy vegetables, olive, cottonseed, and canola oils, as well as fish, liver, and eggs.

In  The Book of the Living, you’ll find a simple, scientific view of healthy eating, exercise, and lifestyle. The authors explain in an accessible language how to eat right and lead an active lifestyle.

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